Any oil supply failure is sufficient to cause a turbo breakdown. At such high revolutions, friction without oil causes immediate material wear. The cause of a lack of oil could be the engine oil pump malfunctioning, the blockage of the line feeding oil to the engine or the use of liquid seals.
This failure may occur as a result of contaminated oil, either because this was not changed in time, or due to the use of poor quality oil or for not having removed the metal remains from the oil sump after an engine component failure.
In short, all types of solid particles can be found in the oil (such as carbon deposits, swarf, the remains of solidified liquid seals).
To protect against this happening, the following should be checked: oil; oil filter; oil sump; blockages in the oil lines.
A damaged filter, or a filter in poor condition, a loose clamp, or even a split hose, can lead to the ingress of sand, dust or salt. It may also happen that, during the replacement of the filter or the turbo itself, a loose part, such as a washer, is left behind.
This type of failure is shown by a loss of engine power and over-heating. Should this occur, it is important to inspect the filter, hoses and clamps.
The turbo can also be damaged through the ingress of a foreign body through the turbine housing.
This failure occurs as a result of a valve or piston breakage, or when particles become detached from the manifold inner walls.
It is important to check the valves, valve seats, pistons, exhaust manifold and the charring of the latter.
Excessive heat in the exhaust leads to the cracking and deformation of the turbine housing.
If the engine over-heats, there is a loss of power and increased consumption. The failure may be due to an out-of-tune injection system or the clogging of the catalytic converter or exhaust.
To correct this failure, the injection, air filter, inter-cooler and piping should be checked.